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Inflammatory responses are quite diverse resulting in a wide range of signs and symptoms that depend on the initiating signals, characteristics of the infiltrating cell populations, and cytokines that are produced cytokines are secreted protein that allows for cell–cell communication; usually refers to communication between immune–immune cells or stromal–immune cells. A variety of cells collaborate to mount functional immune responses which are initiated by resident populations and evolve through the recruitment of additional cell populations to the skin. Initiation of an adaptive immune response is performed by antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which efficiently take up phagocytose proteins, process them into recognizable peptides antigens, and present them to T cells on surface human leukocyte antigen HLA) I and HLA II molecules or human leukocyte antigen class I and II; typically, class I presents intracellular antigens and class II presents extracellular antigens.
STIs have taken on a more important role with the advent of the HIV/AIDS epidemic; and there is good evidence that their control can reduce HIV transmission. The challenge is not just to develop new interventions, but to identify barriers to the effective implementation of existing tools, and to devise ways to overcome these barriers. This scaling-up of effective strategies will require an international and a multisectoral approach. Interest in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was fuelled in the early 1980s by the advent of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and recognition of the role of STI in facilitating the sexual transmission of HIV2. Interest in STI control has reached a peak recently when it was shown that many interventions to control STIs can help reduce the spread of HIV. Furthermore, this can be achieved through the use of low technology in sustainable and cost-effective control programs.
Microbial Pathogenesis deals with the studies and research on molecular and cellular mechanisms in infectious disease. It covers infectious agents of bacterial, fungal, viral, and protozoal origin, and aims for rapid publication of articles of high quality and significance in an International forum. Research areas include pathogenesis, virulence factors, host susceptibility or resistance, immune mechanisms, identification, cloning, and sequencing of relevant genes, genetic studies, viruses, prokaryotic organisms, and protozoa. The late twentieth century witnessed the emergence of numerous infectious diseases that are caused by microorganisms that rarely cause disease in normal, healthy immunocompetent hosts. The emergence of these diseases shows that the existing concepts of pathogenicity and virulence do not take into account the fact that both the microorganism and the host contribute to microbial pathogenesis.
Nosocomial infections are infections that are acquired in a hospital and are potentially caused by organisms that are resistant to antibiotics. It is contacted by a patient while under medical care. Nosocomial infections are infections that have been caught in a hospital A nosocomial infection is specifically one that was not present or incubating prior to the patient's being admitted to the hospital, but occurring within 72 hours after admittance to the hospital. A bacterium named Clostridium difficile is now recognized as the chief cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the US and Europe. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a type of staph bacteria is resistant to certain antibiotics acquired during hospitalization.
Infectious diseases remain a leading cause of morbidity, disability, and mortality worldwide. Lower respiratory infections are the third leading causes of death worldwide and their control is a constant challenge that faces health workers and public health officials in both industrialized and developing countries. Infection control practices are critical to reduce the transmission of infections from one person to another, such as from a healthcare worker to a patient or vice versa. Infection control includes various measures that prevent and contain the spread of infectious diseases. These measures include standard, contact, droplet and airborne precautions; procedures for decontamination of persons and disinfection of equipment and the environment; quarantine of contacts if necessary; prophylaxis of exposed individuals; and control of the vectors of infection.
A parasitic disease also known as parasitosis is an infectious disease caused or transmitted by a parasite. Parasitic diseases can affect practically all living organisms, including plants and mammals. Some parasites like toxoplasma gondii and plasmodium spp. can cause disease directly; but other organisms can cause disease by the toxins that they produce. The three main types of organisms causing these conditions are protozoa causing protozoan infection, helminths or helminthiasis, and ectoparasites. Protozoa and helminths are usually endoparasites usually living inside the body of the host, while ectoparasites usually live on the surface of the host. Occasionally the definition of "parasitic disease" is restricted to diseases due to endoparasites.
Viruses are very tiny germs. They are made of genetic material inside of a protein coating. Viruses cause familiar infectious diseases such as the common cold, flu and warts. They also cause severe illnesses such as HIV/AIDS, smallpox, and Ebola. Viruses invade living, normal cells and use those cells to multiply and produce other viruses like themselves. This can kill, damage, or change the cells and make you sick. Different viruses attack certain cells in your body such as your liver, respiratory system, or blood. For most viral infections, treatments can only help with symptoms while you wait for your immune system to fight off the virus. Antibiotics do not work for viral infections. There are antiviral medicines to treat some viral infections. Vaccines help prevent you from getting many viral diseases.
Bacterial diseases cause variety of illnesses. Bacteria cause disease by secreting or excreting toxins (as in botulism), by producing toxins internally, which are released when the bacteria disintegrate (as in typhoid), or by inducing sensitivity to their antigenic properties (as in tuberculosis). Other serious bacterial diseases include cholera, diphtheria, bacterial meningitis, tetanus, Lyme disease, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Until the mid-20th century, bacterial pneumonia was probably the leading cause of death among the elderly. Improved sanitation, vaccines, and antibiotics have all decreased the mortality rates from bacterial infections, though antibiotic-resistant strains have caused resurgence in some illnesses. In the early 21st century, tuberculosis, which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis several strains of which had developed resistance to one or more drugs widely used to treat the infection, was among the deadliest infectious diseases worldwide.
Antimicrobial agents kill microorganisms or stop their growth. Antimicrobial medicines can be grouped according to the microorganisms they act primarily against. Agents that kill microbes are called microbicidal while those that merely inhibit their growth are called biostatic. The use of antimicrobial medicines to treat infection is known as antimicrobial chemotherapy while the use of antimicrobial medicines to prevent infection is known as antimicrobial prophylaxis.The main classes of antimicrobial agents are disinfectants like nonselective antimicrobials such as bleach, which kill a wide range of microbes on non-living surfaces to prevent the spread of illness, antiseptics which are applied to living tissue and help reduce infection during surgery and antibiotics which destroy microorganisms within the body. The term antibiotic originally described only those formulations derived from living micro organisms but is now also applied to synthetic antimicrobials, such as the sulphonamides, or fluoroquinolones.
Medical diagnosis is referred to as diagnosis with the medical context being implicit. Diagnosis is often challenging, because many signs and symptoms are nonspecific. For example redness of the skin erythema by itself is a sign of many disorders and thus does not tell the healthcare professional what is wrong. Thus differential diagnosis, in which several possible explanations are compared and contrasted, must be performed. However, prevention is the best cure than suffering from diseases. Disease prevention by regular physical activity is important. Experimental studies demonstrate the risk-reducing and health-enhancing effects of regular physical activity. In particular aerobic training seems to be effective in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The psychological benefits of physical activities are decreasing negative emotional states like anxiety and increasing positive emotional states such as vigor.
Microbial Biochemistry, physiology and genetics allowed the formulation of concepts that turned out to be important in the study of higher organisms. Microbial Biochemistry deals with the study and research on the principles of bacterial growth and the description of the different layers that enclose the bacterial cytoplasm and their role in obtaining nutrients from the outside media through different permeability mechanism described in detail. The study includes allostery and its indispensable nature for the comprehension of many regulatory mechanisms. The research also includes the analyses of the mechanisms by which cells obtain the energy necessary for their growth, glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, the tricarboxylic and the anaplerotic cycles. The study also deals with the biosynthesis of the cell building blocks, amino acids, purine and pyrimidine nucleotides and deoxynucleotides, water-soluble vitamins and coenzymes, isoprene and tetrapyrrole derivatives and vitamin B12.
Medical microbiology deals with the studies of the characteristics of pathogens, their modes of transmission, mechanisms of infection and growth. Medical microbiology provides identification of pathogens and suggesting treatment options. Other tasks may include the identification of potential health risks to the community or monitoring the evolution of potentially virulent or resistant strains of microbes, educating the community and assisting in the design of health practices. It also assists in preventing or controlling epidemics and outbreaks of diseases. Not all medical microbiologists study microbial pathology; some study common, non-pathogenic species to determine whether their properties can be used to develop antibiotics or other treatment methods.
Drug Design Research Vaccines focuses on research and development of new technologies relating to drug screening, in-silico design and pharmaceutical optimization in order to contribute to the development of innovative drugs, such as antibody, nucleic acid-based drugs, vaccines or other new modalities. In drug development, not only small chemicals but also middle or high molecular weight drugs, such as biologics and nucleic acid drugs, are anticipated. There are also great expectations in preventive or therapeutic vaccine development. The theory of design for these new categories of drugs has not been established well as various technologies for drug design are required. However, the ever-growing body of genomic data and new genome-based approaches will play a critical role in the future to enable timely development of vaccines and therapeutics to control emerging infectious diseases.
Microbial Pharmacology is concerned with the frequency of antimicrobial drug resistance in the community is associated with the total level of antimicrobial consumption. Not so clear is the association between reduced consumption levels and subsequent reduction in the frequency of resistance. The focus is on different processes that may counteract the reversal of antimicrobial resistance in drug free environments such as the biological cost of resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and genetic stability of resistance determinants. Currently the focus is on expanding the activities to include approaches for optimized antimicrobial treatment informed by principles of evolutionary and population biology and the transmission dynamics of antimicrobial resistance genes/elements in bacterial populations.